Third Party Input:
Conflict Management In Islam
Mohd Fuad Mohd Salleh, PhD.
Faculty of Business
The role of third party incompatible resolution has never been refuted. Nevertheless conflict could be resolved by simply those incompatible, often there is a purpose for a 3rd party intervention. The qualitative case study was used to obtain the effectiveness of Sulh in resolving conflict. The research findings suggested two main requirements for the foundation of conflict resolution in Malay married couples: (1) inline with syariah and laws, and (2) common agreement. This kind of study also available that in handling sulh negotiation, participants had employed cocus and empowerment since the methods to resolve conflicts. Since mediators in the sulh procedure sulh representatives possessed behavioral skills, nevertheless they weren't getting analogical thinking skills. Sulh is effective because of it settling effectiveness conducted by the Sulh officers. The capability of Sulh officers to assist the conflicting party with religion being a guide in unbias manner show the effectiveness of Islamic knowledge and foundation in resolving clashes. It signifies that the american mediation hypotheses are not most suitable in the Malay world. Mediation needs to explore fresh deminsion that is certainly to blend mediation and counseling. Mediation counseling may be introduced because new theory as an alternative argument resolution (ADR) method to handle conflict. Mediation counseling needs the mediator to play dual functions, since mediator in face to face discussion and counselor in cocus sesion.
Key word: Sulh, mediation, conflict management.
Competetion amongst peoples can not be avoided as a result conflict is never ending. Competetion exist due to interest, values, actions, position, objectives and also other needs. At times competetion can be purposly produced because of work specification requirements (Bisno, 1988). But most importantly is with just about every problem, turmoil, or conflict, there is a chance of success and failing. It is important to spot, nurture and harvest the success seed as it is the responsibilities of the crisis managing (Augustine, 2000).
Discord is organic, not positive and not bad, and it is an impact which cannot be avoided because of a natural procedure for transform and development (Messman & Mikesell, 2000). Conflict can be described as state in which interests and objectives of two or more celebrations are incompetible (Klar, Bar-Tal and Kruglanski, 1988; Jones, 1976; Schmidt dan Kochan, 1972; Pruitt dan Rubin, 1986; Putnam dan Poole, 1987, in Rhoades, 1999). Conflict is usually refered to as a great existance of a clash between two diverse interests nevertheless cannot be shared (De Vale, 1985 dan Littlejohn, 1988). Social turmoil is refered to being a social interaction process constitues a raection to acquire resources, power and status, consider and other interest with limited resources (Bisno, 1988). Negative result in turmoil is anticipated a if there is a party who deal with the conflict using win-lose technique. Most people and managers experienced tried to fix problem, turmoil or discord by looking that from their individual perspective and understanding without having a third party view. This will cause incomplete and ineffective quality and turmoil will continu to can be found (De Vale, 1985). Depending on the need of a 3rd party which is unbias, its present is needed to help the inconsistant party to control the issue. There are several capabilities of other. Part of it is the explorer, whom gave confidence to the inconsistant parties that winning is definitely not the objective of the other party. Another role played by the third party is reconciler, who also provides places for improvement. Other capabilities are unifier, facilitator, legitimator, counselor and mediator (Lederach, 1997). One of the most acceptable type of third party is usually mediation wherever an neutral individual produce a path pertaining to the inconsistant parties to negotiate to resolve their conflict. Conflict resolution through mediation can perform higher...
References: Ahmad Ibrahim (1987). Islam and the metabolic rate. Conference newspaper on " The Malaysian Constitution After 30 yearsвЂќ. Law Faculty, University of Malaya.
Ahmad Ibrahim (1987). Sistem peraturan di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Kode dan Pustaka.
Ahmad Ibrahim (1990)
Atras Mohamad Zin (2005). Penyelesaian konflik keluarga pada mahkamah syariah: peranan sulh dan kebercasesanannya. Kertaskerja di Seminar Isu-isu Mahkamah Syariah, Gombak: Kulliyyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim, UIAM, 29 Januari 2005.
Augustine, N. Ur. (2000). Managing the problems you tried to prevent. Harvard Business Review on Catastrophe Management. Boston: Harvvard Business School Press.
Ausubel, M. P. (1963). The mindset of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune dan Stratton Inc. dalam Novak kemudian Gowin (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bar-Tal, G. (1998). Societal beliefs much more intractable issue: The Israeli case. Foreign Journal of Conflict Administration, Jan 98, Vol. being unfaithful Issue 1, p22
Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (1992). Qualitative research in education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston: Allyn dan Bacon Inc.
De Pase, E. (1985). Conflicts: A healthier way to resolve them. London: Harrap Limited.
Idris Ahmad (1983)
el-Qardlawi, M. Sumado a. (1978). Halal dan haram dalam pandangan Islam. Surabaya: P. To. Bina Ilmu.
Esther Gnanamalar (1998). Pemetaan konsep sebagai alat penyelidikan struktur pemahaman. Jurnal Pendidikan, Jilid nineteen, 1998. p69 - 88.
Glesne, G. & Peshkin, A. (1991). Becoming qualitative researchers. An intro. White Flatlands, New York: Longman.
HAMKA (1984). Tafsir al-Azhar Juzu' five. Surabaya: Yayasan Nurul Islam. p57 вЂ“ 73 and 339 вЂ“ 352.
HAMKA (1984).. Tafsir al-Azhar Juzu' 26. p221 вЂ“ 234.
Johnson, G. W. & Johnson, F. (2000) Getting started with together: Group theory and group skills (6th. ed. ) Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn serta Bacon.
Lederach, J. G. (1997). Building peace: eco friendly reconciliation in divided communities, Washington: Usa Institute of Peace, di dalam Wehr, P. (1998). Other Intervention. Discord Research Range, University of Colorado, UNITED STATES.
Littlejohn, S i9000. W. (1996). Theories of human communication. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Marohaini Yusuf (1998). Perkiraan kritikal dalam pelaksanaan kajian kes secara kualitatif. Jurnal Pendidikan, Jilid 19, 98. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya. p1-19.
Merriam, S. W. (1998). Qualitative research an incident study application in education. San Francisco: Josey-Bass Publisher.
Merriam, S. N. (1988). Example research in education: A qualitative strategy. Newbury Park, California: Sage.
Messman, S. J. & Mikesell, Ur. L (2000). Competition and interpersonal conflict in internet dating relationships. Interaction Reports, Wintertime 2000, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p21 вЂ“ 35
Murnighan, M. K. (1999). The information problem in negotiations: effects of experience, incentives, and integrative potential. International Record of Discord Management, 99, Vol. 12 Issue some, p313 вЂ“ 350.
Letras Fathullah Harun (1999). Sistem kekeluargaan pada Islam. Selangor: Dr . Letras Bin Fathullah Harun.
Osman Abdul Hamid (1999). Kes-kes mal tertangguh di Mahkamah Syariah Negeri Selangor. Unpublished Masters in Islamic Analyze Disertasion. UKM, Bangi.
Putnam, L. D. & Folger, J. (1988). communication, turmoil, and argument resolution: study regarding interaction as well as the development of discord theory. Conversation Research 12-15 (1988). p349.
Rhoades, T. A. (1999). The cognitive representation of responses to social turmoil: the development of an integrative taxonomy. International Record of Conflict Management, 99, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p360 - 385.
Raihanah Azhari (2005). Konsep sulh dalam Islam. penyelesaian konflik keluarga di mahkamah syariah: peranan sulh dan kebercasesanannya. Seminar Isu-isu Mahkamah Syariah VII. Gombak: Kulliyyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim, UIAM, 29 Januari, 2005.
Roberts, M. J. (2002). Choosing the right mediator: a guide to powerful mediation variations http://www.mediate.com/articles/roberts3.cfm. Surfed on August 31, 2002.
Sayyid Qutb (1963). Tafsir Fi Zilalil Qur'an Jilid 3 lalu 15 (translated) Yusof Zaki Yacob, 2000. Kota Bahru: Pustaka Aman Press
Syed Hussin Ali (1977)
Syed Hussein Ali (1989). Mitos peribumi malas: Imej jamaah Jawa, Melayu dan Filipina dalam kapitalis penjajah. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa kemudian Pustaka.
Severson, M (1998). Teaching mediation theori and skills within an interdisciplinary class room. Journal of Social Work Education, Spring/Summer98, Vol. 34 Issue installment payments on your p185-195
Sheikh Gazali Abdul Rahman (2000)
Sheikh Gazali Abdul Rahman (2001). Sulh вЂ“ amalannya dalam perundangan Islam. Kertaskerja Seminar Kaedah Alternatif Penyelesaian Pertikaian Berdasarkan Islam. IKIM, Kuala Lumpur.
Tellis, W. (1997). The Qualitative Report, Volume several, Number several, September, 1997. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-3/tellis2.html. Surfed on 03 2, 2005.
Thomas, E. W. & Kilmann, L. H. (1974). Thomas-Kilmann turmoil mode tool. Tuxedo, BIG APPLE: Xicom.
Thomson, L. & Nadler, T. (2000). Judgemental Biases in Conflict Resolution and the way to Overcome These people. The handbook of resolve conflicts: theory and practice. S . fransisco: Josey-Bass Publisher.
Tjosvold, Deb. (1998). Cooperative and competitive goal way of conflict: Accomplishments and problems. Applied Psychology: AnInternational Review, 1998, p47, 285-342.
Van Maanen, Meters. (1990). Exploring live knowledgeable: human science for a task sensitive pedagogy. New York: Point out University of New York Press.
Wahbah al-Zuhaili (1999). Fiqh dan Perundangan Islam Jilid VI. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Yaacob Hashim (1991). Keluarga Melayu bandar: Satu analisis perubahan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Kode dan Pustaka.
Yin, R. (1989, 1994). Case study research: design and methods (Rev. ed. ). Newbury Area, CA: Sage Publishing.
Zainuddin Hamidy & Fachruddin Hs. (1987). Tafsir Quran. Sum, Selangor: Klang Book Center.
Zohdi Tohir. (2003). Isu-isu terkini Mahkamah Syariah lalu wanita. Kertas-kerja di Seminar Memahami Hak Wanita dalam Dalam Undang-undang Keluarga Islam Negeri Selangor (Pindaan Terbaru). Persatuan Peguam Syarie Malaysia dan Surau As-Sobah, Hulu Langat.